Elder Futhark, runic alphabet

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The Elder Futhark is one of the oldest forms of the runic alphabet. It is also called Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark and Germanic Futhark. Runic inscriptions using Elder Futhark have been found on archeological artefacts, including weapons, amulets and of course runestones, from the 2nd to the 8th centuries. It consists of 24 runes and is named after the first six runes: F, U, ᚦ, A, R, K.

During the Viking Age in Scandinavia, it was simplified into Younger Futhark, with only 16 runes. Another variant was the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, which was an extension to the Elder Futhark by the Anglo-Saxons and Frisians.

Runes

Rune Transliteration
f
u
th
a
r
k, c
g
w
ᚺ ᚻ h
n
i
j
ï (ae)
p
z
ᛊ ᛋ s
t
b
e
m
l
ᛜ ᛝ ng
o
d