# Greek Alphabet letters and numerals

See also: Code-Breaking overview | Braille | Dancing men cipher | Elder futhark | Hexahue | International code of signals | Morse code | Pigpen cipher | Semaphore flags

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The Greek alphabet has been in use since around 800 BC. It was the first alphabet to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. The Greek alphabet was derived from the Phoenecian alphabet and is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets. Greek letters can also represent numbers through the greek numerals system (further down on this page).

## Letters

Upper case letter | Lower case letter | Greek letter name | English transliteration |
---|---|---|---|

Α | α | alpha | a |

Β | β | beta | b |

Γ | γ | gamma | g |

Δ | δ | delta | d |

Ε | ε | epsilon | e |

Ζ | ζ | zeta | z |

Η | η | eta | ē |

Θ | θ | theta | th |

Ι | ι | iota | i |

Κ | κ | kappa | c, k |

Λ | λ | lambda | l |

Μ | μ | mu | m |

Ν | ν | nu | n |

Ξ | ξ | xi | x |

Ο | ο | omicron | o |

Π | π | pi | p |

Ρ | ρ | rho | r, rh |

Σ | σ/ς | sigma | s |

Τ | τ | tau | t |

Υ | υ | upsilon | y, u |

Φ | φ | phi | ph |

Χ | χ | chi | ch, kh |

Ψ | ψ | psi | ps |

Ω | ω | omega | ō |

## Greek numerals

Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers, which still is occasionally used for ordinal numbers in much the same way as Roman numerals. Greek numerals are also known as Milesian numerals, Alexandrian numerals or alphabetic numerals. To mark a letter as a numeral sign, a diacritical mark (ʹ) is added to it. A different diacritical mark is used for thousands (͵), so they become ͵Α = 1000, ͵Β = 2000, etc.

Greek numerals operates on the additive principle. For example 42 is written as 40 + 2 = μβʹ.

Upper case letter | Greek letter name | Number |
---|---|---|

Αʹ | alpha | 1 |

Βʹ | beta | 2 |

Γʹ | gamma | 3 |

Δʹ | delta | 4 |

Εʹ | epsilon | 5 |

ϛʹ | digamma | 6 |

Ζʹ | zeta | 7 |

Ηʹ | eta | 8 |

Θʹ | theta | 9 |

Ιʹ | iota | 10 |

Κʹ | kappa | 20 |

Λʹ | lambda | 30 |

Μʹ | mu | 40 |

Νʹ | nu | 50 |

Ξʹ | xi | 60 |

Οʹ | omicron | 70 |

Πʹ | pi | 80 |

ϟʹ | koppa | 90 |

Ρʹ | rho | 100 |

Σʹ | sigma | 200 |

Τʹ | tau | 300 |

Υʹ | upsilon | 400 |

Φʹ | phi | 500 |

Χʹ | chi | 600 |

Ψʹ | psi | 700 |

Ωʹ | omega | 800 |

ϡʹ | sampi | 900 |